|The third excerpt represents the element of Water. It speaks of pure spiritual influences and feelings of love, and is drawn from On Horsemanship by Xenophon:
and about a pound in weight; the whole to be fenced round with a
skirting of iron to prevent scattering. The mere standing on these
will come to precisely the same thing as if for a certain portion of
the day the horse were, off and on, stepping along a stony road;
whilst being curried or when fidgeted by flies he will be forced to
use his hoofs just as much as if he were walking. Nor is it the hoofs
merely, but a surface so strewn with stones will tend to harden the
frog of the foot also.
 Lit. "A damp and smooth floor may be the ruin of a naturally good
hoof." It will be understood that the Greeks did not shoe their
|The fourth excerpt represents the element of Earth. It speaks of physical influences and the impact of the unseen on the visible world, and is drawn from Laches by Plato:
supposed to be a hearer of Socrates; the other is only acquainted with his
actions. Laches is the admirer of the Dorian mode; and into his mouth the
remark is put that there are some persons who, having never been taught,
are better than those who have. Like a novice in the art of disputation,
he is delighted with the hits of Socrates; and is disposed to be angry with
the refinements of Nicias.
In the discussion of the main thesis of the Dialogue--'What is Courage?'
the antagonism of the two characters is still more clearly brought out; and
in this, as in the preliminary question, the truth is parted between them.
Gradually, and not without difficulty, Laches is made to pass on from the
more popular to the more philosophical; it has never occurred to him that